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King of PersiaXerxes: King Of Persia | Abbott, Jacob | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. King of kings Mythologie, Iranische Kunst, Kunstgeschichte, Kunst, Bilder Persian king Darius III and his favorite - beautiful eunuch Bagoas in the palace at. The warres of Cyrus against Antiochus by King of Persia Cyrus(Book) 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.
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He went into a three-week period of mourning, fasting, and prayer. Taking this passage at face value, it seems that the prince of Persia is a fallen angel who in some sense had authority or influence over the physical kingdom of Persia.
In Daniel 10, the prophet is praying about the future of his people and their exile in Persia. Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II.
Son of Vonones II. Vardanes II. Probably the eldest son of Vologases I. Pacorus II. Probably the younger son of Vologases I. Probably son of Vologases I or Artabanus III.
Osroes I. Probably son of Sanatruces I king of Armenia 89— who was brother of Osroes I. Son of Osroes I. Probably son of Osroes I.
Arsaces XLIV . Vologases IV. Son of Mithridates IV. Vologases V. Son of Vologases IV. Osroes II.
Probably son of Vologases IV. Vologases VI. Son of Vologases V. Artabanus V. Tiridates IV . Shahanshah . Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah .
Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran. Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II. Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II.
Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI.
Sasanian general from the House of Mihran. Killed by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht. Shahbanu . Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Restored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow.
Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau II. Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht. Farrokh Hormizd.
Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih , the brother of Vistahm. Killed by Siyavakhsh under the orders of Azarmidokht.
Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau II. Farrukhan the Little. Umar became Caliph in and his forces conquered Persia in Killed by Piruz Nahavandi.
Uthman ibn Affan. Son of Affan, of the Umayyad clan. Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad.
Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb , cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad. Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan. Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Son of Al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III. Ibrahim ibn al-Walid. Ruled from Harran in the Jazira.
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By BC, Artaxerxes was able to conclude the Peace of Callias with Athens and Argos, ending the war that began under his father.
Artaxerxes I also provided sanctuary to Themistocles, an architect of the Greek victory of Salamis, after his exile from Athens.
Themistocles so impressed the King of Persia that he was granted several cities in Asia Minor. Artaxerxes I is also believed to be the Artaxerxes mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah.
In these books Artaxerxes I granted Ezra permission to teach Jewish law to the people living in Jerusalem while Nehemiah was given permission to rebuild the city of Jerusalem and its walls.
Artaxerxes I even provided timbers for the citadel and temple in Jerusalem. Achaemenid Clay Bulla with a stamp seal depicting a Persian King spearing a Greek Hoplite , BC, via The Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Following the death of Artaxerxes I, his son Artaxerxes became Xerxes II, King of Persia, but only ruled for 45 days and was only recognized as king in Persia.
He was murdered by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by his illegitimate half-brother Ochus after a reign of roughly six months over a territory that consisted of little beyond Persia and Elam.
Ochus had been the satrap of Hyrcania, and after killing his brother Arsites who had attempted to emulate his example, took for himself the name Darius II, King of Persia.
Not much is known of the reign of Darius II as he generally kept out of Greek affairs until the Athenian defeat at Syracuse.
Following this event, and annoyed that the Athenians had supported rebels in Anatolia, he sent his satraps against the Greek cities of Asia Minor which had previously enjoyed Athenian protection.
He also offered financial support to the Spartans , which was critical to their efforts against the Athenian fleet at the close of the Peloponnesian War.
Achaemenid Golden Daric depicting a running Royal Archer , 5th -4th century, via The British Museum, London. Shortly after the death of his father Arsaces, now as King of Persia Artaxerxes II, faced a rebellion led by his younger brother Cyrus who had risen to great fame while campaigning in Asia Minor.
Cyrus led a large army bolstered by 10, Greek mercenaries , including the historian Xenophon who left an account of the expedition, against his brother.
The King of Persia, despite initially hoping to resolve the conflict peacefully, emerged victorious. He also had to deal with a rebellion in Egypt which began at the beginning of his reign and had by BC seen the Egyptians declare independence.
A failed attempt to reconquer Egypt led to a series of revolts by the various satraps of Anatolia between BC which were eventually put down.
As the King of Persia, Artaxerxes II exerted a continued influence over the Greeks by offering subsidies and arbitrating their disagreements almost as though he were their overlord.
He also engaged in numerous building and renovation projects across the empire. His greatest shortcoming, however, was in his family life, as plots amongst his harem led to the deaths of many of his beloved sins and other family members.
The oldest records report a convoluted sequence of events in which Cambyses II lost his mind, murdered his brother Bardiya , and was killed by an infected leg wound.
After this, Darius and a group of six nobles traveled to Sikayauvati to kill an usurper, Gaumata , who had taken the throne by pretending to be Bardiya during the true king's absence.
Darius's account, written at the Behistun Inscription, states that Cambyses II killed his own brother Bardiya, but that this murder was not known among the Iranian people.
A would-be usurper named Gaumata came and lied to the people, stating he was Bardiya. On 1 July, the Iranian people chose to be under the leadership of Gaumata, as "Bardiya".
No member of the Achaemenid family would rise against Gaumata for the safety of their own life. Darius, who had served Cambyses as his lance-bearer until the deposed ruler's death, prayed for aid and in September BCE, along with Otanes , Intaphrenes , Gobryas , Hydarnes , Megabyzus and Aspathines , killed Gaumata in the fortress of Sikayauvati.
Herodotus provides a dubious account of Darius's ascension: Several days after Gaumata had been assassinated, Darius and the other six nobles discussed the fate of the empire.
At first, the seven discussed the form of government; a democratic republic Isonomia was strongly pushed by Otanes , an oligarchy was pushed by Megabyzus, while Darius pushed for a monarchy.
After stating that a republic would lead to corruption and internal fighting, while a monarchy would be led with a single-mindedness not possible in other governments, Darius was able to convince the other nobles.
To decide who would become the monarch, six of them decided on a test, with Otanes abstaining, as he had no interest in being king. They were to gather outside the palace, mounted on their horses at sunrise, and the man whose horse neighed first in recognition of the rising sun would become king.
According to Herodotus, Darius had a slave, Oebares, who rubbed his hand over the genitals of a mare that Darius's horse favored.
When the six gathered, Oebares placed his hands beside the nostrils of Darius' horse, who became excited at the scent and neighed. This was followed by lightning and thunder, leading the others to dismount and kneel before Darius in recognition of his apparent divine providence.
According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cambyses II had left Patizeithes in charge of the kingdom when he headed for Egypt.
He later sent Prexaspes to murder Bardiya. After the killing, Patizeithes put his brother Gaumata, a Magian who resembled Bardiya, on the throne and declared him the Great King.
Otanes discovered that Gaumata was an impostor, and along with six other Iranian nobles including Darius, created a plan to oust the pseudo-Bardiya.
After killing the impostor along with his brother Patizeithes and other Magians, Darius was crowned king the following morning.
The details regarding Darius' rise to power is generally acknowledged as forgery and was in reality used as a concealment of his overthrow and murder of Cyrus' rightful successor, Bardiya.
Following his coronation at Pasargadae , Darius moved to Ecbatana. He soon learned that support for Bardiya was strong, and revolts in Elam and Babylonia had broken out.
After three months the revolt in Babylonia had ended. While in Babylonia, Darius learned a revolution had broken out in Bactria , a satrapy which had always been in favour of Darius, and had initially volunteered an army of soldiers to quell revolts.
Following this, revolts broke out in Persis , the homeland of the Persians and Darius and then in Elam and Babylonia, followed by in Media , Parthia , Assyria , and Egypt.
By BCE, there were revolts against Darius in most parts of the Achaemenid Empire leaving the empire in turmoil. Even though Darius did not seem to have the support of the populace , Darius had a loyal army, led by close confidants and nobles including the six nobles who had helped him remove Gaumata.
With their support, Darius was able to suppress and quell all revolts within a year. In Darius's words, he had killed a total of nine "lying kings" through the quelling of revolutions.
One of the significant events of Darius's early reign was the slaying of Intaphernes , one of the seven noblemen who had deposed the previous ruler and installed Darius as the new monarch.
The officers went to the king and showed him what Intaphernes had done to them. Darius began to fear for his own safety; he thought that all seven noblemen had banded together to rebel against him and that the attack against his officers was the first sign of revolt.
He sent a messenger to each of the noblemen, asking them if they approved of Intaphernes's actions. They denied and disavowed any connection with Intaphernes's actions, stating that they stood by their decision to appoint Darius as King of Kings.
Darius' choice to ask the noblemen indicates that he was not yet completely sure of his authority. Taking precautions against further resistance, Darius sent soldiers to seize Intaphernes, along with his son, family members, relatives and any friends who were capable of arming themselves.
Darius believed that Intaphernes was planning a rebellion, but when he was brought to the court, there was no proof of any such plan. Nonetheless, Darius killed Intaphernes's entire family, excluding his wife's brother and son.
She was asked to choose between her brother and son. She chose her brother to live. Her reasoning for doing so was that she could have another husband and another son, but she would always have but one brother.
Darius was impressed by her response and spared both her brother's and her son's life. After securing his authority over the entire empire , Darius embarked on a campaign to Egypt where he defeated the armies of the Pharaoh and secured the lands that Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large portion of Egypt into the Achaemenid Empire.
Through another series of campaigns, Darius I would eventually reign over the territorial apex of the empire, when it stretched from parts of the Balkans Thrace - Macedonia , Bulgaria - Paeonia in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
In BCE, Darius embarked on a campaign to Central Asia, Aria and Bactria and then marched into Afghanistan to Taxila in modern-day Pakistan.
Darius spent the winter of — BCE in Gandhara , preparing to conquer the Indus Valley. Darius conquered the lands surrounding the Indus River in BCE.
Darius I controlled the Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi and appointed the Greek Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to Suez.
Darius then marched through the Bolan Pass and returned through Arachosia and Drangiana back to Persia. After Bardiya was murdered, widespread revolts occurred throughout the empire , especially on the eastern side.
Darius asserted his position as king by force, taking his armies throughout the empire, suppressing each revolt individually.
The most notable of all these revolts was the Babylonian revolt which was led by Nebuchadnezzar III. This revolt occurred when Otanes withdrew much of the army from Babylon to aid Darius in suppressing other revolts.
Darius felt that the Babylonian people had taken advantage of him and deceived him, which resulted in Darius gathering a large army and marching to Babylon.
At Babylon, Darius was met with closed gates and a series of defences to keep him and his armies out. Darius encountered mockery and taunting from the rebels, including the famous saying "Oh yes, you will capture our city, when mules shall have foals.
However, the situation changed in Darius's favour when, according to the story, a mule owned by Zopyrus , a high-ranking soldier, foaled.
Following this, a plan was hatched for Zopyrus to pretend to be a deserter, enter the Babylonian camp, and gain the trust of the Babylonians.
The plan was successful and Darius's army eventually surrounded the city and overcame the rebels. During this revolt, Scythian nomads took advantage of the disorder and chaos and invaded Persia.
Darius first finished defeating the rebels in Elam, Assyria, and Babylon and then attacked the Scythian invaders.
He pursued the invaders, who led him to a marsh; there he found no known enemies but an enigmatic Scythian tribe.
The Scythians were a group of north Iranian nomadic tribes, speaking an Iranian language Scythian languages who had invaded Media , killed Cyrus in battle, revolted against Darius and threatened to disrupt trade between Central Asia and the shores of the Black Sea as they lived between the Danube River, River Don and the Black Sea.
Darius crossed the Black Sea at the Bosphorus Straits using a bridge of boats. Darius conquered large portions of Eastern Europe, even crossing the Danube to wage war on the Scythians.
Darius invaded European Scythia in BC,  where the Scythians evaded Darius's army, using feints and retreating eastwards while laying waste to the countryside, by blocking wells, intercepting convoys, destroying pastures and continuous skirmishes against Darius's army.
In frustration Darius sent a letter to the Scythian ruler Idanthyrsus to fight or surrender. The ruler replied that he would not stand and fight with Darius until they found the graves of their fathers and tried to destroy them.
Until then, they would continue their strategy as they had no cities or cultivated lands to lose. Despite the evading tactics of the Scythians, Darius' campaign was so far relatively successful.
Darius eventually ordered a halt at the banks of Oarus, where he built "eight great forts, some eight miles distant from each other", no doubt as a frontier defence.
Concerned about losing more of his troops, Darius halted the march at the banks of the Volga River and headed towards Thrace.
Darius's European expedition was a major event in his reign, which began with the invasion of Thrace.
Retrieved 1 September Sparda by the bitter sea: imperial interaction in western Anatolia. Scholars Press.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Istakhr — Ctesiphon — winter residence Gundeshapur briefly under Bahram I and Shapur II Hamadan as summer residence Dastgerd briefly Khosrow II's reign.
Divine right , hereditary. House of Sasan. Declared himself as Shahanshah after defeating Artabanus IV of Parthia at the Battle of Hormizdegan Died of natural causes in Co-ruled with his father since 12 April Died of natural causes in May Possibly executed during the uprising which had been led by his own grand uncle Narseh.
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